Lesson 26: Prepositions
how are you?
Note: In Persian, as in many other languages, there is a formal and an informal way of speaking. We will be covering this in more detail in later lessons. For now, however, chetor-ee is the informal way of asking someone how they are, so it should only be used with people that you are familiar with. hālé shomā chetor-é is the formal expression for ‘how are you.’
Spelling note: In written Persian, words are not capitalized. For this reason, we do not capitalize Persian words written in phonetic English in the guides.
Pronunciation tip: kh is one of two unique sounds in the Persian language that is not used in the English language. It should be repeated daily until mastered, as it is essential to successfully speak Persian. Listen to the podcast for more information on how to make the sound.
|chetor-ee||how are you?|
|khayli khoobam||I’m very well|
|khoob neestam||I’m not well|
|bad neestam||I’m not bad|
|chetor-een?||how are you? (formal)|
|hālé shomā chetor-é?||how are you? (formal)|
|hālet chetor-é?||how are you? (informal)|
|khoob-ee?||are you well? (informal)|
|chetor peesh meeré?||how’s it going?|
|ché khabar?||what’s the news? (what’s up?)|
Leyla: Welcome to lesson 26, we're so glad you've joined us!
Matt: As always, remember that bonus materials, as well as all of our previous lessons can be found on our website at www.chaiandconversation.com, with CHAI spelled C-H-A-I.
Leyla: And with that, are you ready to begin the lesson Matt?
Leyla: Great! Then let's begin to learn Persian with Chai and Conversation.
Leyla: We're going to take a break from verbs this week, and learn some vocabulary for preposition words. As you know, preposition words allow you to talk about the location of one object in relation to another object. So these are a pretty important part of any languages vocabulary. Let's go through a few prepositional words now. The word for on is roo-ye
Leyla: In conversational speech, the ye gets dropped and the word becomes simply roo
Leyla: Under is zeer-e
Leyla: So let's say 'the book is on the table.' The word for table is 'meez'
Leyla: So ketab rooye meeze
Matt: Ketab rooye meeze
Leyla: Again, you might also hear ketab roo meeze
Matt: Ketab roo meeze
Leyla: How about the telephone is under the table. Telephon zeere meze
Matt: Telephone zeere meeze.
Leyla: Ok, so on and under, rooye and zeere. Next, in is 'tooye'
Leyla: Again, in conversational speech, the ye might be dropped. So too
Leyla: This is the case for most of these prepositional words, by the way- if they end in a vowel and therefore end in 'ye' the ye sound often gets dropped in conversation. If they end in a consonant and end in an '-e' sound, however, the 'e' sound doesn't get dropped. And really, you'll hear it both ways, sometimes with a 'ye' and sometimes not, so we're going to learn the words both ways. So again, in is 'tooye'
Leyla: or 'too'
Leyla: Outside of is beeroone
Leyla: So let's say you want to say the telephone is in the purse. So telephon tooye keefe
Matt: Telephon tooye keefe
Leyla: So obviously keef is the word for purse. Keef
Leyla: Or the telephone is outside of the purse. Telephone beeroone keefe
Matt: Telephone beeroone keefe
Leyla: So tooye and beeroone, inside and outside. Next, in front of is 'jelo-ye'
Leyla: Since jeloye ends with a 'ye', sometimes it is said as 'jelo
Leyla: And behind is 'poshte'
Leyla: So let's say the chair is in front of the table. Sandalee jeloye meeze
Matt: Sandalee jeloye meeze
Leyla: Or you might hear 'sandalee jelo meeze'
Matt: So how do you say the chair is behind the table?
Leyla: Sandalee poshte meeze
Matt: So jeloye and poshte, in front of and behind.
Leyla: Ok, so we've learned three sets of prepositions so far. Let's go over them. On is rooye
Leyla: And under is zeere
Leyla: In is 'tooye'
Leyla: outside of is beeroone
Leyla: in front of is jeloye
Leyla: behind is poshte
Leyla: So now, I want to want to ask you to make phrases out of some words you know and these prepositional phrases. You know the word for computer and for table, how do you say the computer is on the table
Matt: Computer rooye meeze
Leyla: Great, computer rooye meeze. As we've said, this might be said as 'computer roo meeze' also, but Matt chose rooye instead of roo, and that's completely fine, they both mean the same thing. One thing we haven't mentioned in a while is the shortened version of 'to be'. Matt, why do we say 'meeze' instead of the word for table 'meez'?
Matt: Meeze is a combination of meez and hast.
Leyla: Ok, exactly, so computer rooye meez hast, or computer rooye meeze. Now let's try combining this with something we learned in lesson 24. How would you say 'my telephone is on the table'?
Matt: Telephonam rooye meeze.
Leyla: Exactly, very good. telephonam means my telephone. Telephonam rooye meeze.
Ok, let's try another one. How do you say the car is in the garage? You should already know the word for car, and the word for garage in the Persian language is simply garage
Matt: Masheen tooye garag-eh
Leyla: Perfect, exactly. Masheen tooye garageh. The car is in the garage. What's another way you might hear this Matt?
Matt: Masheen too garageh.
Leyla: Yep, masheen too garageh.
Matt: Ok, let's learn a few more. Above or over is 'balayeh'
Leyla: And below or beneath is payeeneh
Leyla: So let's say you want to say that a bird is in the tree. You could use above to express this, as in the bird is above the tree. Parandeh balayeh derakhteh
Matt: Parandeh balayeh derakhteh.
Leyla: Or the dog is below the table. Sag payeeneh meezeh.
To say 'next to' you say 'pahlooye'
Leyla: So to say the television is next to the couch you say 'television paylooyeh mobleh'
Matt: Television pahlooyeh mobleh.
Leyla: The word for by, as in by the side of, is 'kenar-e'
Leyla: So these two have similar meanings and can be interchangeable in a lot fo circumstnaces. So say you want to say the telephone is by the couch. You say 'telephone kenare mobleh'
Matt: Telephone kenare mobleh.
Leyla: So, we've learned that 'tooye' is the word for in. There's another word for inside of that can be used as well, and that is 'dakhele'
Leyla: this is used often when you're talking about entering spaces yourself. Like, if you want to say I'm inside the store, you say 'dakheleh maghazam
Matt: Dakheleh maghazam
Leyla: To the left of is 'tarafe chap-e'
Matt: Tarafe chap-e
Leyla: And to the right of is tarafe rast-e
Matt: tarafe rast-e
Leyla: So to say, for example, Sara is to the right of Maryam, you say 'Sarah taraf-e rast-e Maryam-e
Matt: Sarah taraf-e rast-e Maryam-e
Leyla: To say David is to the left of john, you say 'david tarafe chape Johne
Matt: David tarafe chape johne
Leyla: So let's go over all of these prepositional words again. On is rooye
Leyla: Under is zeereh
Leyla: In is tooye
Leyla: out of is beeroone
Leyla: In front of is jeloye
Leyla: and behind is poshteh
Leyla: Next to is pahlooyeh
Leyla: Below or beneath is payeeneh
Leyla: And by the side of, or beside, is kenareh
Leyla: Inside of is 'dakhele
Leyla: Another way to say in is tooyeh
Leyla: Above or over is balayeh
Leyla: To the left of is tarafe chape
Matt: Tarafe chape
Leyla: And to the right of is tarafe raste
Matt: tarafe raste
Leyla: There's one more we haven't covered and that is opposite of. Opposite of in Perisan is rooberooyeh
Leyla: Great- this lesson is a bit of a treat, because we're going to leave it at that- short and simple, with some good new vocabulary words for you to practice throughout the week. And that brings us to the end of lesson 26.
Matt: We hope you enjoyed the lesson
Leyla: If you haven't already, we would really appreciate if you could leave us feedback on facebook
Matt: Also, we have been keeping our facebook very active in the past few weeks. Like us there to get the updates the fastest
Leyla: We really appreciate all the feedback and support you have continued to send.
Matt: And until next time, khodahafez, from Matt
Leyla: And beh omeedeh deedar from Leyla